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What is most significant from the reading is that while the various factors play roles, no single one is entirely deterministic.

1.A theme in some of this weeks reading is how genetics do and do not play roles in the occurrence of psychological disorders. This is particularly interesting to me as it is something I regularly process through as someone with ADHD and depression. My mother also has ADHD and depression and my father has signs of deep depression though he has not been diagnosed. The take away from the reading on this is what the authors call Multidimensional Integrative Approach. This approach is a solid foundation for what we will be discussing this semester. It integrates the dimensions of psychological, emotional, and developmental influences. The remainder of the chapter explored these various factors.

What is most significant from the reading is that while the various factors play roles, no single one is entirely deterministic. Genetics do not ensure good or bad behaviors or characteristics, but rather they provide a sort of boundary to how one might develop. Our experiences do not define us, but they do help to shape us. Our feelings of what we experience aren’t the only thing that shapes our understanding though they are important to helping us process the various experiences we will have.

In light of this, it makes sense that psychological evaluation of future clients will require a holistic consideration of the person. Focusing on just one element will not address the whole person. It will take consideration and evaluation of these multiple dimensions to find real solutions and help for clients.

2.One of the themes I noted in Durand was the influence our emotional states and life experiences can have on our physical states. For example, chapter 2 discusses not only that a persons genetics contribute to our psychopathology, but also that his early life events can influence gene expression via epigenetic influence. Similarly, Durand also describes that anger activates the heart in ways that are different from other forms of excitementby dropping its pumping efficiency, and that relaxation techniques, ones easily taught by counselors, can mitigate this effect. These examples of how our experiences and our emotional states can impact our bodies was fascinating to me, because we often see the world through a more medical lens, in which biological processes may impact our emotional state, but not the other way around. It gave me a deeper sense of the utility of our work as counselors.

I was also interested in the way this back-and-forth complicates discernment of causality in research studies. I personally connected with the discussion of the correlation between marital problems and disruptive behavior in children. I have found myself in many exasperating conversations with people who blindly defend marriage as a protector of children. There is an argument that simply keeping a father in a home prevents children from poor outcomes. However, this argument denies the potential genetic contribution, and that divorce sometimes is a means of protecting children from an abusive parent. I had never seen my argument that some of the correlation could be genetic seen backed up by science, and Durand sparked my interest to research this subject further.
References
Durand, V. M., Barlow, D. H. & Hofman, S. G. (2018). Essentials of abnormal psychology. Cengage Learning.

Source
Durand, V. M., Barlow, D. H. & Hofman, S. G. (2018). Essentials of abnormal psychology. Cengage Learning.

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